Depuis trois décennies, la peine de mort recule incontestablement dans le monde. Le noyau dur des États rétentionnistes procédant à des exécutions se réduit désormais à une trentaine de pays. Pourtant, en Amérique du Nord, en Asie, en Afrique, il est des États qui paraissent peu affectés par le mouvement international en faveur de l'abolition : des exécutions ont eu lieu en 2015 en Inde et au Japon, tandis qu'elles continuent en Iran, en Irak, en Arabie Saoudite, en Indonésie ou dans certains États des États-Unis.
Cet ouvrage réunit philosophes, juristes et cartographes pour s'interroger sur les progrès et les limites de cette ambition d'une abolition universelle, qui deviendrait absolue, de la peine de mort. De Victor Hugo à Derrida, quels sont les impératifs philosophiques de l'abolition ? Quelle est l'influence des conventions internationales, quels sont les facteurs propices à l'abolition ? Et, approche originale utilisée ici, comment est-il possible de mesurer le phénomène abolitionniste à travers des cartes ?
Sous la direction de Marc Crépon, Jean-Louis Halpérin et Stefano Manacorda
Postface de Robert Badinter
Cartes de Julien Cavero : o carte interactive
This volume examines legal matters regarding the prevention and fighting of historical pollution caused by industrial emissions. "Historical pollution" refers to the long-term or delayed onset effects of environmental crimes such as groundwater or soil pollution.
Historical Pollution presents and compares national legal approaches, including the most interesting and effective mechanisms for managing environmental problems in relation with historical pollution. It features interdisciplinary and international comparisons of traditional and alternative justice mechanisms.
This book will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice and related areas, such as politics, law, and economics, those in the public and private sectors dealing with environmental protection, including international institutions, corporations, specialized national agencies, those involved in the criminal justice system, and policymakers.
This book presents the results of a two-year international research project conducted for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC) to investigate and provide solutions for reducing bribery and corruption in corporations and institutions. It starts with an empirical case study on the effectiveness of a set of self-regulation rules adopted by multinational companies in the energy sector. Second, it explores the context and factors leading to corruption internationally (and the relationships between domestic criminal law and self-regulation). Third, it examines guidelines for the adoption of compliance programs developed by international institutions, to serve as models for the future. The principle result of the book is a three-pronged Anti-Bribery Corruption Model (so called ABC Model), endorsed by the United Nations, intended as a corruption prevention tool intended to be adopted by private corporations. This work provides a common, research-based standard for anti-bribery compliance programs, with international applications. This work will be of interest to researchers studying Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly in the areas of organized crime and corruption, as well as related areas like Business Ethics and Comparative International Law.
The theft, trafficking, and falsification of cultural property and cultural heritage objects are crimes of a particularly complex nature, which often have international ramifications and significant economic consequences. Organized criminal groups of various types and origins are involved in these illegal acts.The book Crime in the Art and Antiquities World has contributions both from researchers specializing in the illegal trafficking of art, and representatives of international institutions involved with prevention and detection of cultural property-related crimes, such as Interpol and UNESCO.This work is a unique and useful reference for scholars and private and public bodies alike.This innovative volume also includes an Appendix of the existing legal texts, i.e. international treaties, conventions, and resolutions, which have not previously been available in a single volume.As anyone who has undertaken research or study relating to the protection of cultural heritage discovers one of the frustrations encountered is the absence of ready access to the multi- various international instruments which exist in the field. Since the end of the Second World War these instruments have proliferated, first in response to increasing recognition of the need for concerted multinational action to give better protection to cultural property during armed conflict as well as ensuring the repatriation of cultural property looted during such conflict. Thus the international community agreed in 1954 upon a Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.That Convention, typically referred to as the Hague Convention of 1954, is now to be found reproduced in the Appendix to this book (Appendix I) together with 25 other important and diverse documents that we believe represent a core of the essential international sources of reference in this subject area. In presenting these documents in one place we hope that readers will now experience less frustration while having the benefit of supplementing their understanding and interpretation of the various instruments by referring to individual chapters in the book dealing with a particular issue or topic. For example, Chapter 9 by Mathew Bogdanos provides some specific and at times rather depressing descriptions of the application in the field of the Hague Convention 1954, and its Protocols (Appendices II and III), to the armed conflict in Iraq. Reference may also be had to the resolution of the UN Security Council in May 2003 (Appendix VI) urging Member States to take appropriate steps to facilitate the safe return of looted Iraqi cultural property taken from the Iraq National Museum, the National Library and other locations in Iraq. Despite such pleas the international antiquities market seems to have continued to trade such looted property in a largely unfettered manner, as demonstrated by Neil Brodie in Chapter 7.Fittingly, as referred to in the Preface to this book, the last document contained in the Appendix (Appendix 26) is the "Charter of Courmayeur", formulated at a ground breaking international workshop on the protection of cultural property conducted by the International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council (ISPAC) to the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program in Courmayeur, Italy, in June 1992. The Charter makes mention of many of the instruments contained in the Appendix while also foreshadowing many of the developments which have taken place in the ensuing two decades designed to combat illicit trafficking in cultural property through international collaboration and action in the arena of crime prevention and criminal justice.
This book focuses on the World Bank's sanctions system, which is an innovative instrument of global governance implemented by the leading multilateral development bank in order to impose penalties on legal entities and individuals that are involved in Bank-financed projects. Although similar regimes have also been implemented by other regional multilateral development banks, the World Bank's legal framework is currently the most comprehensive one.The book offers a rich and detailed analysis of the sanctions system, presenting an in-depth examination of all the phases of its procedure with a special focus on key aspects such as the criteria for assigning liability to legal entities and corporate groups, as well as the World Bank's jurisdictional reach over non-contractors. The book also explores the compatibility between the legal framework implemented by the Bank and the rule of law, the role of precedents, and the level of due process. It highlights the fact that the sanctions system is currently characterized by a lack of legal guarantees, and that there are compelling reasons for supporting the argument that due process safeguards should be applied to it in their entirety. To that end, the book conducts a thorough analysis of specific procedural aspects such as the right to a hearing, the right to evidence disclosure, the time limit regime, the standard of proof and shift of the burden of proof, the evidential value of a party's silence, and the consistency and predictability of the World Bank's sentencing practice. The study is conducted on the basis of a detailed and painstaking examination of the most relevant decisions taken by the Sanctions Board, providing the first-ever commentary on the World Bank's case law.